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Carbonisation of natural minerals



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Carbonisation of minerals is the chemical behave of alkaline minerals ( silicates) to react with CO2.


CO2 is not the natural end condition.



The reaction with Silicates and CO2 is exotherm, so ( little) heat shall be released.


Carbonisation is the biggest natural CO2 binder on the earth.


Yearly more then 4 billion CO2 is been bind.


The reaction is definitive, only  at extreme temperature ( > 1200 °C  ) the CO2 will be released.

Due mankind the CO2 amount yearly is over 20 billion ton this is much more then the nature is able to bind by the Carbonisation process.

The outcome is that the CO2 in the air and water atmosphere are rising. 

Causing temperature rising and acid of our oceans.


Every Continent contains enough minerals to bind all the CO2 outcome.


The mining, milling and transport costs energy and course CO2 outcome.

Recent Live Cycle Analyze has been proven that more then 80 % remains for binding CO2, so the balance is very positive.


A lot of common minerals can be used:


-                Olivine ( Mg Silicate)

-                Wallostonite ( Ca Silicate)

-                Serpentine ( Mg Silicate)


Worldwide a lot off research is performed, especially at the natural weathering and the CO2 binding.


Due the weathering of minerals, Co2 is being bind and residues like silica and Mg, Fe and Ca Carbonates are released.

These residues have a excellent effect on the agriculture and can be seen as supplements or replace chemical fertilizer.


In nature this process can take hundreds of years, depending on the temperature, grain size and some bacteria.



This slow process can be accelerated by:

-                Temperature rising

-                PH rising

-                Pressure rising

-                Grain size reducing

-                The ability of water and CO2

-                Catalyst, like amoniasalt


Research is performed at the role of fungal and bacteria


The reaction is at the surface, hereby a reaction skin is formed, which decrease the reaction speed.

As explained, the reaction is exothermic, so heat is exchanged.


For carbonization on industrial scale, it’s essential to accelerate the reaction speed as much as possible.

A traditional autoclave  has so much energy penalty, that in most cases, more  CO2 is produced then is bind.



GPV Gravity Pressure Vessel

A GPV has total different parameters: Optimal conditions are made for binding CO2 by Carbonization.


-   A integrated heat exchanger with the length off the reactor takes care of a
    perfect energy balance, in case of the minerals Olivine and Wollastonite, the
    exothermic reactions cause a extra energy output ( steam under pressure)

-   Continue process

-   Residence time of approximate 60 minutes ( depending of the kind of mineral and
    grain size.)

-   Effective mixing of the slurry en CO2 by the 3 fase compound.

-   “free” pressure till 100 bar .

-   Constant crushing off the grains, so the reaction layer is thinner, the quality of the
    residue is higher and the size off the grains can be much bigger as in a traditional


There are several others advantages

-   The CO2 doesn’t have to be 100 % pure ( > 80 % )

-   The GPV function as a big washing  installation, so all the solid and dissolvable
     materials are filtered. So the outcome gases are free of NOx, SO2, CO, and crill.


So with the GPV it’s possible to bind CO2 and use the exothermic energy to keep the process running and for delivery for external processes.

During the carbonization, high tech residues minerals are being produced, like Ca-, Fe-, Mg-Carbonates and Nano-silica.

So CO2 positive Construction material are being produced for many different purpose, like agriculture, buildings, infra, land reclamation and coast protection.


Off course the kind of residues, depends on the kind off minerals, reaction parameters and separation techniques.

For further details, see the application minerals.


Innovation Concepts B.V. from Holland has a different patent pending due the GPV technique, reacting CO2 with Silicates minerals.


During the year 2011,  several tests will be profiled.

Innovation Concepts B.V. designed a special autoclave, which simulate the GPV process on Lab scale.


Contact: info@innovationconcepts.eu


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