GPV stands for: Gravity Pressure Vessel
A gravity Pressure Vessel is a special kind of continue autoclave.
A composed vertical Tube with a build in heat exchanger.
The vertical position takes care of the pressure, The pressure is usually "for free".
Many GPV are self-contained, the incoming pressure is less then the outcoming.
Due the combination off the free pressure increase and the excellent heat exchanger, are the energy costs of a GPV system less then 90 percent of the traditional autoclaves.
A GPV system is not suitable for all kind of autoclaves processes, only wet or slurry processes can be executed.
The principle is a long U-tube in the ground (Apeldoorn was 1200 m1) the exact length is dependent of the exact kind of process. The longer the tube, the more the pressure increases and the longer the residence time is.
This is how the process works.
A) Outside the reactor, the mixing of the solid particles and liquid takes place and a
b) The slurry is pumped into the innertube and goes down. The pump pressure
depends on the dimension of the reactor, solid fluid ratio and the position and
capacity of the gasinjection points. (c)
c) In the innertube, there are several positions off gasinjection. Due the 3 phase
d) Due the heat of the exothermic reaction, the temperature of the slurry is rising.
The hot carbonated slurry takes care off heating up the incoming slurry.
f) At the bottom, the innertube is open, so the slurry flows into the middle tube and
g) If necessary, the extensive heat can be take away by the sectioned cooling tube.
At the surface the heat can be transformed into pressurized steam.
h) The slurry in the middle tube flows up and releasee the heat to the inner- and
coolingtube. As the enclosed space is ringlike, the upflowing liquid is in good
contact with the downcoming tube.
The temperature range and trend can be influenced by the coolingtube
i) Depending on the requried exit conditions, it’s possible to cool the slurry
f) The slurry leaves the reactor and if necessary the slurry can be separated or has