header gpv
CO2 Energy Reactor Waste treatment Metal Ore Carbonisation minerals Carbonisation Residue's Energy production Mine tailings Oil sands / oil shale
Welcome CO2 english GPV Gravity Pressure Vessel GPV Applications GPV Products Mineral type Trade minerals Science Links Contact


Sludge and chemical waste


In Apeldoorn ( the Netherlands), a GPV has been operated for ten years in full scale.

This reactor had designed for wet oxidation of sludge.

Also other kind of chemical waste has been neutralized.



The 1200 meter ( 0,74 mile) deep reactor  had the next proportions,


3 tubes:      - intern tube, downcommer diameter 7 5/8 inch

                  - middle tube, upcommer, diameter 13 3/8 inch

                  - outside tube, Cooling tube, diameter 16 inch


-                Reaction medium : oxygen

-                Residence time: 60 minutes.

-                capacity :   100 m3 totally slurry a hour.

-                Normal process temperature : 280 degrees Celsius.

-                Maximum pressure : 100 bar



All organic components burned totally and the other components stays in solution.

A biologic purification plant took care off the further degradation of the nitrogen.


The water was partly recycled.



The Cooling tube had a double function:

-     the water is heated for starting up the process, so the slurry was preheated in
 the system.

The reaction is exothermic, as soon the reaction produced enough heat, the input of cold water was started and de steam under 20 bar pressure released. 

The total energy output was 3,5 GigaJoule heat ( steam at 250 Degrees Celsius, 40 Bar).


A detail off the cooling tube at the dept of 1200 meter was not designed for a temperature change of 250 degrees Celsius. After ten years this item gave so many trouble that the GPV stopped operating and was closed with concrete.






 schema gpv2